Age and stage questionnaires (2023)

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The ASQ-3 is a system of 21 age-specific developmental assessment questionnaires designed to assess the following areas of child development: 1) gross motor skills, 2) fine motor skills, 3) communication, 4) problem solving, and 5) personal skills. -social.

Link to the tool

instrument in details


evaluation area

Development of babies and children.
Social relationships

type of evaluation



not free

actual costs

$ 295,00

cost description

ASQ-3 Starter Kit: $275; User Guide: $50; Questionnaire: $225; Materials Pack: $295


  • Pediatric + Youth Rehabilitation


pediatric disorders

main descriptions

  • The ASQ-3 is a screening tool used to identify children who are at risk for developmental delays and those who are developing normally.
  • Age groups include: 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 42, 48, 54, and 60.
  • Instructions for each questionnaire are included with each individual form. Respondents, who may be parents or caregivers, are asked to consider a series of questions about the child's ability to perform a variety of developmentally appropriate tasks.
  • Results calculated by adding the responses of individual items for each domain:
    Sim = 10
    sometimes = 5
    not yet = 0
  • Item-level scores range from 'typically developing', 'needs follow-up' to 'needs further assessment'.

number of pieces


(Video) Administration of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire

Necessary equipment

  • feeding bottle
  • Big ball
  • small ball
  • rosario
  • wordless picture book
  • Storybook with pictures.
  • small blocks
  • He was
  • coloring book
  • colored pencils
  • Taxes
  • child size fork
  • various bottles
  • Spiegel
  • Puzzle
  • child resistant scissors
  • cords
  • child size spoon
  • plush doll
  • key in a ring
  • toys
  • reservoir
  • manual/leaflet
  • Detailed Equipment List

time to manage


Each questionnaire is expected to take 15-20 minutes to complete.

Required Training

Read an article/manual

age groups

Pediatric populations






instrument tester

Reviewed by Aliza Rothstein, OTR/L, University of Illinois at Chicago.

domain ICF

body structure
body function

measurement domain


Professional association recommendation

Although the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends developmental screening during day care visits, the AAP does not endorse the use of the ASQ-3 tool.


  • ASQ-3 is available from the publisher in English and Spanish. Older versions of the tool are also available in French and Korean in the editor.

  • The ASQ-3 has been translated, culturally validated, and published in multiple languages, including but not limited to:

    • Spanish, Arabic, Persian, French, Korean, Chinese, Portuguese, Hindi, Dutch, Thai, Norwegian, Turkish and Afrikaans.

  • The ASQ-3 has been used in many countries and cultures, including but not limited to the following:

    • Chile, Brazil, Canada, Lebanon, Spain, United Kingdom, United States, Colombia, Australia, Aboriginal and Canadian/Mohawk communities.

      (Video) Introduction to the Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3)

  • Be sure to consider the client's cultural background in determining the appropriateness of the assessment tool.

  • Reduced validity of the original US validation with translation when translated for use in another country (Rubio-Codina et al, 2016)

pediatric disorders

return to populations

cut scores

developmental delay(Escuderos, Twombly, Bricker & Potter, 2011;norte= 579)

Total scores of 75 or less on any given questionnaire indicate risk of developmental delay.

Regulatory data

Typical Developmental Disorder and Developmental Disorder of Coordination(King-Dowling, Rodriquez, Missiuna & Cairney, 2015; 159 children from 43 to 65 months)

Risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder (42-, 48-, 54-, and 60-month Combined Questionnaires)

  • Total ASQ Motor Score: (Mean = 95.5, SD = 16.2)

  • Gross Motor ASQ Score: (mean = 49.5, SD = 11.5)

  • ASQ Fine Motor Score: (mean = 46.1, SD = 11.3)

Typically Developing Children (Combined Questionnaires at 42, 48, 54, and 60 Months)

  • Total ASQ Motor Score: (Mean = 106.7, SD = 14.7)

  • ASQ Gross Motor Score: (Mean = 55.4, SD = 7.8)

  • ASQ Fine Motor Score: (mean = 51.3, SD = 10.4)

Reliability test/retest

developmental delayRubio-Codina et al., 2016;norte= 1522; ASQ-3norte= 770)

  • Troubleshooting -Great: (CCI= 0,80)

  • Communication -Great: (CCI= 0,92)

  • high engine -Arm: (CCI= .37)

  • Grobmotorik -Great:(CCI= 0,90)

  • personal-socialGreat: (CCI= .73)

(Escuderos, Twombly, Bricker & Potter, 2011;norte= 145)

  • Great,with domains from - (ICC=.75-.82)

Inter-rater/intra-rater reliability

developmental delay

  • Great: (CCI=.93) (Marks & LaRosa, 2012)

  • Appropriate:(ICC=.43-.69) (Squires, Twombly, Bricker & Potter, 2011;norte= 107)

internal consistency

developmental delay(Escuderos, Twombly, Bricker & Potter, 2011;norte= 18,572)

from bad to excellentInternal consistency: (Cronbach's alpha range between 0.51 and 0.87) for 20 age ranges from 2 months to 60 months in 5 developmental domains.

(Video) Developmental Screening, Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ)

Validity criterion (predictive/simultaneous)

developmental delay(Escuderos, Twombly, Bricker & Potter, 2011;norte= 579)

Simultaneous Validity

The ASQ-3 was found to have lower concurrent validity compared to other developmental assessment tools in children younger than 30 months (Rubio-Codina et al., 2016).

  • High specificity:85,6%

  • high sensitivity86,1%

predictive validity

Brands and LaRosa, 2012

  • High specificity:77,9-91,3%

  • High sensitivity:82,5-89,2%

Developmental delays:(Halle et al., 2011)

  • High specificity:(85.7%) to identify children at risk of developmental delay between 27 and 36 months.

  • high sensitivity(85.9%) to identify children at risk of developmental delay between 27 and 36 months.

  • high specificity(92.1%) to identify children at risk of developmental delay between 42 and 60 months.

  • high sensitivity(82.5%) to identify children at risk of developmental delay between 42 and 60 months.

Schoenhaut et al., 2013;norte= 306

  • High specificity:81% at 8, 18 and 30 months

  • moderate sensitivity:75% after 8, 18 and 30 months

  • Low PPV:47%

  • GO under:9%


predictive validity

King-Dowling, Rodriguea, Missiuna & Cairney, 2015;norte= 163

  • High specificity:(89-96%) on motor scales to identify children 3.5 to 5.5 years of age without DCD.

  • Low sensitivity:(21-47%) on motor scales to identify children 3.5 to 5.5 years of age with DCD.

  • Low PPV:(36%)

  • Total equity value(93%)

content validity

Both parents and physicians were consulted in the development of the ASQ-3.

validity in mind

Not tested statistically, but use of a standardized screening tool such as the ASQ-3 versus medical surveillance was found to increase the likelihood of detecting developmental delays in children at 9, 18, and 24 months (Thomas et al, 2012).

However, without statistical evaluation, ASQ-3 was found to increase in clinical use by clinicians from 2002 to 2009 (Radecki et al, 2011).

(Video) OnLAC Webinar - An Introduction to Ages and Stages Questionnaires


Alotaibi N, Reed K, and Nadar M (2009). Assessments in occupational therapy practice: an exploratory study.Occupational therapy in the health sector, 23(4), 302-317.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2006). Identification of infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities in medical education: a developmental screening and monitoring algorithm.pediatrics,118(1), 405-420.

Armijo, I., Schonhaut, L. & Cordero, M. (2015). Validation of the Chilean Version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-CL) in Community Health Settings.early Human Development,91, 671-676.

Charafeddine L, Sinno D, Ammous F, Yassin W, Al-Shaar L, and Mikati MA. (2013). Age and Stage Questionnaires: Adaptation to an Arabic-Speaking and Culturally Sensitive Population.European Journal of Pediatric Neurology,17(5), 471-478.

Demestre X, Schonhaut L, Morillas J, Martínez-Nadal S, Vila C, Raspall F, & Sala P (2016). Risks of developmental deficits in late preterm infants: assessment at 48 months of age using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire.Annals of Pediatrics (English edition),84(1), 39-45.

Dionne C, McKinnon S, Squires J, and Clifford J (2014). Developmental screening in a Canadian (Mohawk) First Nation: psychometric properties and settings of age and stage questionnaires (2nd edition).bmc Pediatrics,14(23), 1-8.

El-Behadil A, Neger E, Perrin E, Sheldrick R (2015). Translations of developmental assessment tools: an evidence map of the available research.Journal of Developmental Pediatric Behavior, 36(6), 471-483.

Halle, T., Zaslow, M., Wessel, J., Moodie S., & Darling-Churchill, K. (2011) Understanding and selecting developmental assessments and monitoring for young children: profiles of selected interventions. Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

King-Dowling, S., Rodriguez, MC, Missiuna, C., & Cairney, J. (2015). Validity of the age and stage questionnaire to detect the risk of developmental coordination disorder in preschool children.Child: care, health and development,42(2), 188-194.

Lopes, S., Graça, P., Teixeira, S., Serrano, A., & Squires, J. (2015). Psychometric properties and validation of the Portuguese version of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires (3rd edition): 9, 18 and 30 questionnaires.early Human Development,527-533.

Marcas, K.P. and Larosa, A.C. (2012). Understand developmental behavior assessment measures.pediatrics In Retrospect,33(10), 448-458.

Radecki L, Sand-Loud N, O'Connor K, and Olson L (2011). Trends in the use of standardized tools for the detection of early childhood development: 2002-2009.pediatrics,128(1).

Ringwalt, S. (2008). Development of screening and evaluation tools.National Center for Technical Assistance to Early Childhood.

Rubio-Codina M, Araujo M, Attanasio O, Muñoz P, & Grantham-McGregor S (2016). Concurrent validity and feasibility of short tests currently used to measure early childhood development in large-scale studies.PLUS ONE,11(8).

Schonhaut L, Armijo I, Schönstedt M, Alvarez J and Lamb M (2013). Validity of age and stage questionnaires in term and preterm newborns.pediatrics,131(5), E1468-E1474.

Squires J, Twombly E, Bricker D, and Potter L (2009). Age and Stage Questionnaires: Third Edition. Baltimore, MD: Published by Paul H. Brookes.

Thomas, SA, Cotton, W., Pan, X. & Ratliff-Schaub, K. (2011). Comparison of routine developmental monitoring with standardized developmental screening in primary care.clinical pediatrics,51(2), 154-159.

Veldhuizen S, Clinton J, Rodríguez C, Wade TJ, and Cairney J (2015). Simultaneous validity of the Bayley questionnaires on age and stage and developmental scales in a general population sample.academic Pediatrics,15(2), 231-237.

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(Video) Developmental Screening - How to Score: ASQ-3

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How valid is the ages and stages questionnaire? ›

Proven reliable and valid

Backed by almost 40 years of rigorous research, ASQ questionnaires are highly accurate in identifying children with developmental delays with excellent sensitivity and specificity. High validity and reliability have been demonstrated through detailed psychometric studies.

Can teachers complete the ASQ? ›

For the ASQ:SE-2, if the tool is not parent-completed, the authors recommend that the questionnaire is completed by a teacher, independent of the parent. Guidelines require that the teacher knows the child well and has at least 15 to 20 hours of contact with the child each week, for at least a month.

How many questions are in the ages and stages questionnaire? ›

ASQ-3, which includes 21 questionnaires, covers 1 month through 5½ years of age. The following intervals are available: 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 42, 48, 54, and 60 months of age.

Who can complete the Ages and Stages questionnaire? ›

Parents or caregivers complete the ASQ-3 questionnaires independently, or, if necessary, with the assistance of a professional. Caregivers and teachers who spend 15–20 hours per week with a child may also complete ASQ-3 questionnaires.

What are the disadvantages of the ages and stages questionnaire? ›

Some limitations included potential to cause anxiety, concerns around the safety of some of the items, and use of Americanized language. Health professional's training in the use the ASQ-3 was inconsistent.

How do you know if a questionnaire is valid or reliable? ›

Reliability of the questionnaire is usually carried out using a pilot test. Reliability could be assessed in three major forms; test-retest reliability, alternate-form reliability and internal consistency reliability. These are discussed below. Test-retest correlation provides an indication of stability over time.

Can ASQ diagnose autism? ›

ASQ-3 is not an autism screener; however, the ASQ-3 reliably picks up delays associated with autism and identifies children who should receive further evaluation. Questions on behavior and communication in the Overall section also elicit parent concerns that may point to autism.

How do you score an ASQ assessment? ›

  1. STEP ONE: Calculate total scores for each area. Add up the responses to the six questions in each area to calculate a score for each area. Scores for each area should fall between 0 and 60. ...
  2. STEP TWO: Compare calculated scores to cutoffs on the scoring sheet. In the ASQ-3, higher scores indicate more positive outcomes.

What does ASQ look at? ›

ASQ-3 is a set of questionnaires about children's development from 2 to 66 months which can be self-administered by parents/caregivers. Doing this screening provides a quick look at how children are doing in important areas, such as communication, physical ability, social skills, and problem-solving skills.

How many questions should be in a questionnaire? ›

A good questionnaire can be of 25 to 30 questions and should be able to be administered within 30 min to keep the interest and attention of the participants intact.

How do you complete an ASQ? ›

How ASQ Works
  1. Select the questionnaire. ...
  2. Ask the parent to complete the questionnaire. ...
  3. The parent answers the questions. ...
  4. Score the questionnaire. ...
  5. Discuss results with parents and determine next steps. ...
  6. Share activities with parents.

How long does the ASQ take? ›

The Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) is a quick, easy and free developmental screening tool for your child—which only takes 10-15 minutes to fill out.

When should the ASQ be completed? ›

Complete the ASQ:SE questionnaire at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 month age intervals. Screen children with ASQ-3 at 2 and 4 months, then at 4 month intervals up to 24 months old, and at 6 month intervals until the child reaches 5 years old.

How do you explain ASQ to your parents? ›

Here are some tips for introducing ASQ® questionnaires—and increasing the odds that parents can complete them with confidence.
  1. Make a Good First Impression.
  2. Calm Fears About Screening.
  3. Prepare Parents to Get Started.
  4. Explain Response Options.
  5. Tell Them What's Next.

Who can fill out the ASQ-3 tool? ›

Who completes ASQ-3? Parents/caregivers complete questionnaires; professionals, paraprofessionals, or clerical staff score them.

What is the biggest limitation of the questionnaire technique? ›

  • Time-consuming to collect the data. It takes longer for the respondent to complete open questions. ...
  • Time-consuming to analyze the data. ...
  • Not suitable for less educated respondents as open questions require superior writing skills and a better ability to express one's feelings verbally.

What is the main weakness of questionnaire? ›

The questionnaire has the following disadvantages : Useful only for educated respondents - The main flaw or restriction of the questionnaire is that it can only collect data from educated people. Uneducated or illiterate people cannot complete a thorough questionnaire.

What is the purpose of the ages and stages questionnaire? ›

The Ages and Stages Questionnaires® is a screening tool that can be used to screen infants and young children for delays during the crucial first five years of life. ASQ meets the recommendation by the California Department of Social Services to use standardized tools to identify children for referral.

Why do questionnaires lack validity? ›

Questionnaires are said to often lack validity for a number of reasons. Participants may lie; give answers that are desired and so on. A way of assessing the validity of self-report measures is to compare the results of the self-report with another self-report on the same topic. (This is called concurrent validity).

How can you improve the reliability of a questionnaire? ›

If the goal of the survey is to have all respondents answering the same questions, then it's best if the survey researcher writes the questions more completely or “better” (such as listed above, to the right). Complete questions will get you more reliable answers.

How do you measure content validity of a questionnaire? ›

To measure the content validity of the entire test, you need to calculate the content validity index (CVI). The CVI is the average CVR score of all questions in the test. Remember that values closer to 1 denote higher content validity.

What are some red flags when screening a child for autism? ›

Red flags of autism in toddlers
  • Limited use of gestures such as giving, showing, waving, clapping, pointing, or nodding their head.
  • Delayed speech or no social babbling/chatting.
  • Makes odd sounds or has an unusual tone of voice.
  • Difficulty using eye contact, gestures, and sounds or words all at the same time.

What is the best test to diagnose autism? ›

Diagnostic Tools
  • Autism Diagnosis Interview – Revised (ADI-R) A clinical diagnostic instrument for assessing autism in children and adults. ...
  • Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Generic (ADOS-G) ...
  • Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) ...
  • Gilliam Autism Rating Scale – Second Edition (GARS-2)

At what age is a diagnosis of ASD found to be very stable? ›

“Our findings suggest that an ASD diagnosis becomes stable starting at 14 months, and overall is more stable than other diagnoses, such as language or developmental delay,” said Pierce.

What is the cut off score for ASQ SE? ›

Ellen discussed the results of ASQ:SE-2 with Tessa. Marcus's ASQ:SE-2 total score of 120 points is well above the cutoff of 85.

What do ASQ SE scores mean? ›

In the ASQ-SE, lower scores indicate more positive outcomes. Each version of the ASQ-SE has different cutoff scores that indicate whether the child's development appears to be on schedule.

What are some factors that can affect ASQ SE results? ›

Some factors that can affect behavior are lack of sleep, hunger, medications, or exposure to drugs in utero. Find out whether the child has had a recent medical checkup and refer the child to a primary care provider if necessary.

How many questionnaire intervals does the ASQ SE have? ›

ASQ:SE, which includes 8 questionnaires, covers 3 months throughs 5½ years of age. Questionnaires can be at any or all of the following intervals: 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months of age Who completes ASQ:SE questionnaires?

How many types of questions are there in questionnaire? ›

While several articles expound various types of surveys, such as multiple choice, Likert scales, open-ended, and so on, these are actually the types of responses. On the other hand, there are two survey question types: factual or objective questions and attitude or subjective questions.

What are the ASQ questions? ›

The ASQ-3 questionnaire includes questions about your child's communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal social skills. The ASQ screening can help identify your child's strengths and any areas where your child may need support. As a parent or caregiver, you know your child best.

What is the ASQ 3 questionnaire? ›

What Is ASQ-3™? more than 20 years to make sure children are developing well . A screening pro- vides a quick look at how children are doing in important areas, such as communication, physical ability, social skills, and problem-solving skills .


1. Ages and Stages Questionnaire presentation
(kelly klein)
2. Developmental Screening - The Basics: ASQ-3
(Bureau of Family Health)
3. Ages and Stages Questionnaires: 36 Month
(Mommy, You Can Do It!)
4. Screening with ASQ: Easy for providers, engaging for parents
5. Introduction to the Ages & Stages Questionnaires Social-Emotional (ASQSE-2)
(First 5 Alameda County)
6. Ages and Stages example screening SD 480p


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