Jean Piaget was an early 20th-century Swiss psychologist. Based on his observational studies of children, he created theories of cognitive development. Piaget's theories reinforce this ideaChildren learn while playing.
In this blog post, you will discover Piaget's four stages of cognitive development and how they relate to the development stages of the game.
Piaget developed a series ofgame development stages🇧🇷 We can observe them in their four stages of cognitive development.
Piaget's four stages of cognitive development
Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes 4 stages.
Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years
Preoperative phase: 2 to 7 years
Concrete deployment phase: from 7 to 11 years
Formal operating phase: from 12 years
For more information on Jean Piaget and his theories on cognitive development in children, seeTHIS BLOG POST: Development Stages: Piaget
The name of the first stage (Sensory motor skills) gives an indication of how children learn in the first two years of life. From birth, babies use theirsThereto get to know your world
The five senses exploration game is the main game type you will see in this phase. Children focus on two things at this stage:
their own bodies
You will find that in the sensorimotor stage, babies and toddlers focus on repetitive patterns of movement or sound. They spend their time sucking, shaking, hitting and babbling.
Piaget observed that around 6 months of age, babies began organizing their knowledge conceptually. Initially, babies may not understand a particular toy, but as they look, touch, and touch, they begin to form a concept of the toy in their mind. As they learn more about the properties of objects and how to manipulate them, they begin to understand the game's effects on their environment.
The next level of cognitive development ispre-operationalStage. You will find that at this stage children are learning to associate objects with words and the way they use and represent objects has no adult logic behind it.
Piaget noted that children are used at this stageimaginative gamerepresent objects and build their conceptual knowledge through simulation and dramatic play.
Around age 4 they become more interested in social interactions and begin to enjoy structured games with rules. However, in the preoperative period, your thinking is still dominated by intuition rather than logic.
Concrete operating phase
As children progress through theoperational concreteStage Piaget observed that logical thinking arises. Hands-on games with rules become extremely effective learning tools for children at this stage of development.
Rules initially provide the structure and repetition sought for the development of logical thinking. Gradually, in the concrete action stage, the children concentrate more on the social aspects of the game. They play to seek connection and group acceptance.
Formal operating phase
By himformal operationsAt this stage, children develop the ability to reason and think hypothetically. abstract concepts likefuture, justice and valuesThey are engaging and easy for children to understand at the formal operations stage.
Children at this stage of cognitive development want more competitive games with more complex rules. Piaget found that children at this stage also needed less guidance from adults because they were better able to think independently.
Piaget's four phases of game development
Piaget proposed the stagescognitive developmentThey appear in a specific order. Children will not skip a step, but will gradually go through each step. He believed in it toogame phasesbe progressive, with visible changes in children's play as they progress through each stage.
According to Piaget, children engage in types of play that reflect their level of cognitive development. Gambling is child labor.
through the game
Children develop cognitive skills and learn new information
Learn and practice social skills
Children develop effective communication skills
Learn self-regulation skills
Children develop the ability to resolve conflicts
work on problem solving skills
Children learn to work together with others
learn about themselves and their place in the world
Children explore roles, interests, skills and relationships
Children explore and learn about their world through play.
Functional game by Piaget
Any repetitive action that the child finds enjoyable isfunctional game.
Functional play is the first type of play that children experience. It starts in babies in the sensorimotor phase of cognitive development. As babies learn to control their bodies and objects, they experience functional play.
Babies play with repetitive actions like shaking a rattle, splashing around in the bath, or repeatedly dropping toys from the high chair. These basic actions become play when the child consciously engages in the activity for pleasure (Frost, 1992).
As children develop cognitively, their simple, repetitive actions become increasingly complex and coordinated. Functional play is not limited solely to the sensorimotor level of cognitive development.
Children can observe and enjoy functional play.throughout your childhood🇧🇷 Whenever children discover and practice new motor skills such as sliding, climbing, stacking, jumping and hopping, they engage in functional play.
Piaget's constructive game
When children manipulate objects to create something, they participateconstructive game.
Constructive play is often seen in the classroom through practical, inquiry-based pedagogies.
In constructive play, children develop their conceptual knowledgeAsk questions, test ideas and collect information.By experimenting with learning materials, they plan, explore and discover.
Constructive play enables children to understand their world.
Children also develop in constructive play
fine motor skills
As educators, we need to encourage these types of games becauselays the foundation for academic, social and emotional success.
Small children prefer constructive play. When given a choice between play activities, preschoolers choose constructive play more than 50% of the time (Rubin, Fein, & Vandenberg 1983).
Piaget viewed constructive play asa transition from functional to symbolic play🇧🇷 It allows children to manipulate and control their environment and makes them feel accomplished.
ÖkeyFostering constructive play in your classroom is about providing your children with inspirational and age-appropriate learning materials. Children need to be able to use these materials in an organized and purposeful way so they can do something new with them.
Research areas of constructive play
Because constructive play is driven by children's interactions with their environment (Chaille 2008), designing an appropriate learning environment will take constructive play in your classroom to a new level.
Try to add new and original materials, e.gloose pieceson their research areas to stimulate interest and invite children to explore the materials in new ways.
Integrate your research areas and reuse the materials you offer to the children in your class.
Combine the wooden workbench with the art area
Add some math manipulation or loose parts to your reading and writing space
Add the science chart to your tile area
Use the deck or the outside area by pulling materials and resources from within
Bring outdoor materials and resources into the classroom
Set up collage wagons on the playground
Add a Lego tray to a picnic blanket under a tree.
constructive play on the playground
Water holes and sandpits are staples in most early childhood playgrounds. They are excellent invitations for children to engage in constructive play.
Other areas you might consider adding to your outdoor space are
easels and paints
Outdoor mats or tables with baskets of blocks, puzzles, Lego and other traditional educational materials.
A large garden for children to work and play also invites them to engage in varied, constructive play.
Fantasy/Fantasy Gameit is a dramatization or a fantasy play.
Role play is the child's ability to use objects, actions, or ideas to represent other objects, actions, or ideas. Dramatic classroom play areas and small worlds are the perfect learning experience to encourage role play or role play.
Fantasy/fantasy play is widely considered to be thatmore challenging game activityduring preschool and kindergarten. Pretend play promotes the development of social skills, academic skills, early concepts of literacy, and self-regulation of behavior (Leong & Bodrova 2015).
Children as young as 18 months can be pretended to play. You may have seen small children play when they use objects to represent something else, such as driving a car by moving a pretend steering wheel or using a block of wood as a cell phone. Drinking from an empty glass or pretending to feed a doll are also examples of role play.
As children move through Piaget's stages of cognitive development, their play involves imagination and drama. Preschool children enjoy role play and often incorporate social norms into their role play. The more sophisticated their representations and imaginations become, the more important socialization becomes in their play.
You will find that these children begin to assign roles to themselves and to others. They will begin to incorporate sequential steps and organized plans into their imaginative play.
Dramatic play is vital to cognitive development and should be an integral part of your classroom.🇧🇷 It offers children the opportunity to explore different roles and social rules that they otherwise might not be able to explore in the real world.
Dramatic play helps children break out of their self-centered thinking. Through mock or pretend play, children learn the skills of negotiation, cooperation, listening, sharing, taking turns, and respecting the feelings, thoughts, ideas, and physical space of others.
The symbolic game is also aPrerequisite for reading and arithmetic skills🇧🇷 When we write letters and numbers we use symbols for what we want to convey. When children pretend to play, they are practicing the same concepts.
Researchers have found that following a sequence of play (stirring the milk and then feeding the doll) a child can also handle language syntax ("I need paper and crayons").
Children also develop their cognitive skills as they use their imaginations and engage in mock or mock games. Every time a child learns to think creatively, new neural pathways are created.
Developing creative thinking skills helps children become effective problem solvers. Creative thinking skills are also crucial to bringing new perspectives into our world.
Play by Piaget's rules
Any game that imposes rules that players must follow isGames with rules.
This is the last type of work documented by Piaget. In order to successfully participate in this type of games, children must first have the cognitive ability to understand and remember the rules.
These games also require children to regulate themselves. They must control their own wants and needs in order to play by the rules of the game.
Children are usually introduced to games with rules at school. games likeTiggy, Gato and RatoÖEnte Ente GansThey are always a favorite in the classroom. These classroom games are often a child's first introduction to games with rules.
Board games and card games are another type of game with rules. Through these games, children develop an understanding of cooperation and competition.
Games with rules are often characterized by logic and order, and as children grow older they can develop method and design in their games (Frost 2004).
Piaget's learning theories strongly suggest that this is what we should focus oncreate engaging learning environmentsthat provide children with opportunities to experience and interact with the world around them.
Educators must provideinteractive and hands-on learning experiencesto enable children to progress through Piaget's stages of cognitive development and achieve their cognitive developmental milestones. In order for children to build new knowledge and mental models of understanding, we must carefully plan and provide useful play experiences for our students.
Gaming experiences that span each other
Games with rules Games
You will find many resourcesHERE ONto help you create engaging learning environments and provide hands-on, interactive learning experiences.
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Piaget viewed play as integral to the development of intelligence in children. His theory of play argues that as the child matures, their environment and play should encourage further cognitive and language development.What are the 4 stages of Piaget's cognitive development theory describe one of the stages that is most interesting to you? ›
Piaget divided children's cognitive development in four stages, each of the stages represent a new way of thinking and understanding the world. He called them (1) sensorimotor intelligence, (2) preoperational thinking, (3) concrete operational thinking, and (4) formal operational thinking.What are the 4 stages of Piaget's cognitive development class 11? ›
- Sensorimotor. Birth through ages 18-24 months.
- Preoperational. Toddlerhood (18-24 months) through early childhood (age 7)
- Concrete operational. Ages 7 to 11.
- Formal operational. Adolescence through adulthood.
Piaget suggested the teacher's role involved providing appropriate learning experiences and materials that stimulate students to advance their thinking. His theory has influenced concepts of individual and student-centred learning, formative assessment, active learning, discovery learning, and peer interaction.Which would be Piaget's advice to teachers? ›
Piaget's advice to teachers, in essence, was to provide conditions under which the child can be guided to learn for themselves: Not just to master existing knowledge, but to become excited about the possibility of creating new knowledge.