TORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA, Clearway and Stopway explained - Aviation Archive (2023)

If you are wondering about the meaning of various aviation terms such asTORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA,about bookjStop, we are here to break through your endless confusion and explain each of these terms in detail.

When it comes to aviation, one thing is certain: it's serious business. Whether you are a commercial pilot responsible for the safety of your crew and passengers during your flight, or just an aviation enthusiast preparing to earn your certificate to experience first-hand the beauty of the skies, accuracy is the key! ! As confusing as these aviation terms may seem at first, they are fundamental to anyone who is going to operate an aircraft.

TORA – TODA – ASDA – LDA – Stopway – Clearway

In short, Clearway, Stopway, TORA (Take Off Runway Available), TODA (Take Off Distance Available), ASDA (Accelerated Stop Distance Available), and LDA (Landing Distance Available) are specific portions and extensions of a runway, which is basically what it is is the area used to land and take off an aircraft.
Because each of these areas has different structures, very precise sizes, and different purposes during landing and takeoff, it is important to know the definition and characteristics of each of these terms in order to take off and land safely.

Whether you're an aspiring flight enthusiast trying to understand parts of the runways or just want to refresh your memory on these basic aviation terms, this article will help. In this post, we will learn about TORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA, Clearway and Stopway. Although it may seem a bit confusing at first, the following illustration showing how each area relates to the other parts will help you understand better.

So let's learn more about these important aviation terms, starting with the definition of "runway".

(Video) Declared Distances

What does "track" mean?

According to the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization), the meaning of a clue is “rectangular area defined in a terrestrial airfield prepared for landing and take-off of aircraft', which basically means it's the area used specifically for landing and takeoff of an airplane.

Runway dimensions vary widely and can be as small as 245 m (804 ft) long and 8 m (26 ft) wide as seen at smaller general aviation airports, and as large as runway 17/35 of the lake bed in Edwards. Air Force Base in California with massive dimensions of 11,917 m × 274 m (39,098 ft × 899 ft).

In addition, track surfaces can be made from a variety of specialty materials such as asphalt, concrete, or sometimes a mixture of both. On the other hand, the runways at some of the national airfields around the world can simply be natural surfaces such as grass, dirt, gravel, ice, sand or even salt. Although track dimensions are usually given in meters, feet are commonly used in North America.

TORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA, Clearway and Stopway explained - Aviation Archive (1)

The definition of Clearway

Clearway is that portion of the runway that is outside the paved portion, free of any material that could be considered blocking, and controlled by airport authorities. The length of this part can be counted as part of the length of TODA, which we will define later in this post.

(Video) Vmca (Minimum Control Air Speed) Explaiend - [Why Should You Always Fly Above This Speed?].

According to the United States Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration, the highway must be at least 150 meters (500 feet) wide, and the practical limit on the length of the highway is 300 meters (1000 feet). The free path is critical to the successful execution of the launch.

The meaning of stop

The stop is the area just behind the runway and is used to slow down if a takeoff is aborted for any reason. Its width must be at least that of the runway and capable of assisting an aircraft during deceleration without damaging it. The stop zone is centered on the extended runway centerline, and the combined length of the runway and the stop zone equals the ASDA, the available accelerated stopping distance.

Because they have limited use and are expensive to build, intermediate stops are less economical compared to a full runway in either direction. The stops are easily identified by the large yellow chevrons at the ends of the main runway.

TORA (runway available)

TORA is defined as the length of runway suitable for an aircraft to take off. If there is a travel limit, TORA is not the same as LDA (Available Landing Distance). On the other hand, TORA does not include the stop zone or the highway. TORA is 15% shorter than the total rail length.

ALL (Available takeoff distance)

ALL is the length of the runway plus any obstacle-free zones. If there is no clear path, TODA is the same as TORA. TODA includes ground and air segments. In short, TODA = TORA + Clearway.

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ASDA (Available Acceleration-Stop Distance)

ASDA is defined as the sum of LDA/TORA (if applicable) and Stopway. If take-off is aborted, the aircraft may stop on the runway or in the holding area. ASDA should not be used as TORA due to the structure of the obstacle free area.

LDA (Distance Available to Land)

LDA is that portion of the runway length deemed available and suitable for an aircraft to land. If there is an offset boundary, the LDA starts at the beginning of the offset boundary. Otherwise, the start of the boundary is the LDA start point.

For more information on lane vacancies, holding areas, TORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA and other important runway information, see Aerodrome Information Publications, Jeppesen Letters.

TORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA, Clearway and Stopway explained - Aviation Archive (2)

The importance of given runway distances

These lengths and values ​​are very important for aerodrome authorities, airport air traffic controllers and aircraft pilots to protect the safety and well-being of crew and passengers and to achieve successful take-offs and landings.

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There are several aircraft types in different categories and all have minimum requirements. An airline must meet these requirements to create a safe destination suitable for risk-free landing and take-off.

On the controller side, ATC needs to know all longitudes with intercept origins to maintain air traffic safety and ensure the safety of all involved. In the end, all the technical details, rules and regulations of aviation primarily serve one purpose and that is; "Security".

a short summary

In aviation, accuracy is important and fully understanding the meaning of several key terms is crucial. Track parts and track extensions are among these basic concepts. And they can be listed as; Freeway, Station, TORA, TODA, ASDA and LDA. In order to be able to take off and land safely, it is imperative for a pilot to know the declared runway distances and operational requirements of the aircraft he is operating. To describe them briefly
important terms;
• Runway is the area designated for takeoff and landing of an aircraft.
* Clearway is that portion of the runway that is beyond the paved portion and is free of any type of obstructing material.
• Stopway is the part used to reduce the aircraft's speed in the event of a take-off abort.
*TORA is the runway length available for takeoff roll.
• TODA is LOG plus free hand when available.
* ASDA is TORA plus stop where available.
• LDA is the length of runway available for an aircraft to land.

For more articlesclick.

For ICAO documentationclick.

(Video) TAPP Working Group Video Part 4 of 4) Landing Distance Assessment (HD 720p)


What is TORA vs Toda and Asda? ›

TORA – The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aircraft taking off. TODA – The length of TORA plus length of the CWY, if provided. ASDA – The length of TORA plus the length of the SWY, if provided.

What is the difference between TORA and Toda aviation? ›

The TORA is measured from the start of takeoff to a point 200 feet from the beginning of the departure Runway Protection Zone. Takeoff Distance Available (TODA) – this distance comprises the TORA plus the length of any remaining runway or clearway beyond the far end of the TORA.

What is the difference between clearway and stopway? ›

The Clearway is part of the Take-off Distance Available (TODA) and its purpose is to reduce the initial climb performances restrictions. The Stopway (SWY) is an area beyond the actual runway that is available in case of a rejected take-off. It is identified by large yellow converging stripes (picture #1).

What does Asda mean on chart supplement? ›

ASDA, Accelerate-Stop Distance Available. Takeoff threshold to the end of the stopway, if it's there; threshold to threshold, if not. TODA, Takeoff Distance Available. This is the total obstacle-free distance, including runway and clearway.

What does Asda mean in aviation? ›

A runway's declared Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA), Takeoff Run Available (TORA) and/or Takeoff Distance Available (TODA) may each be shorter than the runway length depicted on an Airport Diagram.

How does Asda stand out? ›

Asda's differentiating focus is on value, aiming to beat out its competitors with prices that are known to be lower. Asda's strategy poses inherent challenges for brands trying to sell on Asda has a huge range of value-driven own brand labels that threaten shelf position in both the category and in search.

What is Tora vs Toda vs Asda vs LDA? ›

* TORA is the runway length available for the takeoff run. TODA is TORA plus clearway when available. * ASDA is TORA plus stopway when available. LDA is the length of runway that is available for the ground run of the landing of an aircraft.

What does LDA stand for in aviation? ›

Definition. Localiser (LOC) and Localiser Type Directional Aid (LDA) Approaches are defined as non-precision runway approach aids based on a single ground based radio beam which provides pilots with horizontal guidance during an approach to land.

What is a stopway in aviation? ›

A stopway is an area beyond the takeoff runway, centered on the. extended runway centerline, and designated by the airport owner for use in decelerating an airplane. during an aborted takeoff. It must be at least as wide as the runway and able to support an airplane.

Can a stopway be used for takeoff? ›

The stopway is an area beyond the runway which can be used for deceleration in the event of a rejected takeoff. It must be: At least as wide as the runway. Centered upon the runway extended centerline.

What is the clearway rule? ›

Clearway Road Sign

This means that parking is prohibited in the area for the times shown. You sometimes see the Clearway sign accompanying another parking sign. For example, in an area where there is paid parking from 7am to 8pm, you may be restricted from parking between 5pm to 6pm during rush hour.

Can you stop on a clearway during daylight hours? ›

Red route clearway - don't stop

You must not stop or park your vehicle on this road. Vehicles are not allowed to stop at any time on our red route clearways (similar to urban clearways). They are operational 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and are not indicated by red lines, except at some roundabouts and junctions.

What is Asda value range called? ›

“We've developed Just Essentials by Asda to offer our customers the same value they know and love from our Smart Price range,” says Sam Dickson, Asda VP of brand and propositions, at the time, “but across a much larger and more diverse range of products, and with a bold brand that is hard to miss.”

How many items can be expressed at Asda? ›

There is no minimum or maximum order value, £8.50 delivery charges apply. You can order as many items as you want, from our full range, at the same price you pay for them online and instore.

What is Asda premium range called? ›

Using only the best ingredients, our delicious range of Extra Special ready meals are the perfect solution when you're looking for an inspiring and hassle-free dinner.

What is Asdas finest range called? ›

Using only the best ingredients, our delicious range of Extra Special ready meals are the perfect solution when you're looking for an inspiring and hassle-free dinner.

Which is the biggest Asda superstore? ›

Milton Keynes is our largest store measuring more than 100,000 sq. ft.

Is ASDA online shopping secure? ›

Shop securely online

Don't worry it's simple; You will connect to your bank, and you w'll be asked to enter you Security details. It's and extra layer of security to help protect you when you are shopping online.

Why is it called the ASDA? ›

In 1965, the Asquith brothers approached Associated Dairies to run the butchery departments within their small store chain. A merger was proposed and the Asquiths' business was joined with Noel Stockdale's to form a new company, Asda (Asquith + Dairies) (capitalised from 1985).

What does ASDA stand for? ›

Asda Bodmin (Image: PA) ASDA stands for Associated Dairies. The company was founded in 1949 when the supermarket-owning Asquith family merged with the Associated Dairies company of Yorkshire. It expanded into the south of England during the 1970s and 1980s.

What did ASDA used to be called? ›

Asda Stores Limited was founded as Associated Dairies & Farm Stores Limited in 1949 in Leeds. The adoption of the Asda name occurred in 1965 with the merger of the Asquith chain of three supermarkets and Associated Dairies; Asda is an abbreviation of Asquith and Dairies, often capitalised.


1. TAPP Working Group Video Part 3 of 4) Wet Runway Takeoff Performance (HD 720p)
(FAASTeam - Safety Videos Archive -Unofficial-)
2. Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Explained - Part 1
3. TAPP Working Group Video Part 2 of 4) Declared Distances (HD 720p)
(FAASTeam - Safety Videos Archive -Unofficial-)
4. Runway Construction in Animation
(Bhardwaj Company)


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